Publikationen

Einführung in die GRADE Methodik (BMJ)

Diese Publikationsserie ist eine einführende Beschreibung des GRADE Ansatzes für alle, denen GRADE bisher nicht bekannt ist. Die PDF-Dokumente auf der BMJ Website sind Kurzfassungen.

  1. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist G, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Alonso-Coello P, Schünemann HJ, for the GRADE Working Group.
    Rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.
    BMJ 2008, 336:924-926 or [pdf]
  2. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Vist GE, Falck-Ytter Y, Schünemann HJ; GRADE Working Group.
    Rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations: What is "quality of evidence" and why is it important to clinicians?
    BMJ 2008, May 3;336(7651):995-8
  3. Schünemann HJ, Oxman AD, Brozek J, Glasziou P, Jaeschke R, Vist GE, Williams JW Jr, Kunz R, Craig J, Montori VM, Bossuyt P, Guyatt GH; GRADE Working Group.
    Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations for diagnostic tests and strategies.
    BMJ 2008, May 17;336(7653):1106-10
  4. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Jaeschke R, Helfand M, Liberati A, Vist GE, Schünemann HJ; GRADE working group.
    Rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations: Incorporating considerations of resources use into grading recommendations.
    BMJ 2008, May 24;336(7654):1170-3
  5. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Vist GE, Liberati A, Schünemann HJ; GRADE Working Group.
    Rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations: Going from evidence to recommendations.
    BMJ 2008, May 10;336(7652):1049-51
  6. Jaeschke R, Guyatt GH, Dellinger P, Schünemann H, Levy MM, Kunz R, Norris S, Bion J; GRADE working group.
    Use of GRADE grid to reach decisions on clinical practice guidelines when consensus is elusive.
    BMJ 2008, Jul 31;337:a744

GRADE Guidelines Serie (J Clin Epidemiol)

Diese Publikationsserie bietet einen detaillierten Leitfaden für Autoren von systematischen Reviews und Health Technology Assessments, Leitlinienersteller und Methodiker zur Anwendung der GRADE Methodik.

Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Schünemann HJ, Tugwell P, Knotterus A. GRADE guidelines: A new series of articles in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. J Clin Epidemiol 2010, Dec 27

  1. Guyatt G, Oxman AD, Akl E, Kunz R, Vist G, Brozek J, Norris S, Falck-Ytter Y, Glasziou P, Debeer H, Jaeschke R, Rind D, Meerpohl J, Dahm P, Schünemann HJ. GRADE guidelines 1. Introduction-GRADE evidence profiles and summary of findings tables. J Clin Epidemiol 2011, Jan 3
  2. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Atkins D, Brozek J, Vist G, Alderson P, Glasziou P, Falck-Ytter Y, Schunemann HJ. GRADE guidelines 2. Framing the question and deciding on important outcomes. J Clin Epidemiol 2011, Jan 3
  3. Balshem H, Helfand M, Schunemann HJ, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Brozek J, Vist GE, Falck-Ytter Y, Meerpohl J, Norris S, Guyatt GH. GRADE guidelines 3: rating the quality of evidence - introduction. J Clin Epidemiol 2011, Jan 6
  4. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist G, Kunz R, Brozek J, Alonso-Coello P, Montori V, Akl EA, Djulbegovic B, Falck-Ytter Y, Norris SL, Williams JW Jr, Atkins D, Meerpohl J, Schünemann HJ. GRADE guidelines 4: rating the quality of evidence - risk of bias. J Clin Epidemiol 2011, Jan 20
  5. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Montori V, Vist G, Kunz R, Brozek J, Alonso-Coello P, Djulbegovic B, Atkins D, Falck-Ytter Y, Williams JW Jr, Meerpohl J, Norris SL, Akl EA, Schünemann HJ. GRADE guidelines 5: rating the quality of evidence - publication bias. J Clin Epidemiol 2011, Aug 1
  6. Guyatt G, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Brozek J, Alonso-Coello P, Rind D, Devereaux P, Montori VM, Freyschuss B, Vist G, Jaeschke R, Williams JW Jr, Murad MH, Sinclair D, Falck-Ytter Y, Meerpohl J, Whittington C, Thorlund K, Andrews J, Schünemann HJ. GRADE guidelines 6. Rating the quality of evidence - imprecision. J Clin Epidemiol 2011, Aug 12
  7. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Woodcock J, Brozek J, Helfand M, Alonso-Coello P, Glasziou P, Jaeschke R, Akl EA, Norris S, Vist G, Dahm P, Shukla VK, Higgins J, Falck-Ytter Y, Schünemann HJ; The GRADE Working Group. GRADE guidelines: 7. Rating the quality of evidence - inconsistency. J Clin Epidemiol 2011, Aug 2
  8. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R, Woodcock J, Brozek J, Helfand M, Alonso-Coello P, Falck-Ytter Y, Jaeschke R, Vist G, Akl EA, Post PN, Norris S, Meerpohl J, Shukla VK, Nasser M, Schünemann HJ; The GRADE Working Group. GRADE guidelines: 8. Rating the quality of evidence - indirectness. J Clin Epidemiol 2011, Aug 1
  9. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Sultan S, Glasziou P, Akl EA, Alonso-Coello P, Atkins D, Kunz R, Brozek J, Montori V, Jaeschke R, Rind D, Dahm P, Meerpohl J, Vist G, Berliner E, Norris S, Falck-Ytter Y, Murad MH, Schünemann HJ; The GRADE Working Group. GRADE guidelines: 9. Rating up the quality of evidence. J Clin Epidemiol 2011, Aug 1
  10. Brunetti M, Shemilt I, et al.; The GRADE Working. GRADE guidelines: 10. Rating the quality of evidence for resource use. J Clin Epidemiology 2013, Feb
  11. Guyatt G, Oxman AD, Sultan S, Brozek J, Glasziou P, Alonso-Coello P, Atkins D, Kunz R, Montori V, Jaeschke R, Rind D, Dahm P, Akl EA, Meerpohl J, Vist G, Berliner E, Norris S, Falck-Ytter Y, Schünemann HJ. GRADE guidelines: 11. Making an overall rating of confidence in effect estimates for a single outcome and for all outcomes. J Clin Epidemiol 2012, Apr 30
  12. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Santesso N, Helfand M, Vist G, Kunz R, Brozek J, Norris S, Meerpohl J, Djulbecovic B, Alonso-Coello P, Post PN, Busse JW, Glasziou P, Christensen R, Schünemann HJ. GRADE guidelines 12. Preparing Summary of Findings tables-binary outcomes. J Clin Epidemiol 2012, May 18
  13. Thorlund K, Oxman AD, Walter SD, Patrick D, Furukawa TA, Johnston BC, Karanicolas P, Akl EA, Vist G, Kunz R, Brozek J, Kupper LL, Martin SL, Meerpohl JJ, Alonso-Coello P, Christensen R, Schunemann HJ. GRADE guidelines 13. Preparing Summary of Findings tables-continuous outcomes. J Clin Epidemiol 2013, Feb
  14. Andrews J, Guyatt G, Oxman A, Alderson P, Dahm P, Falck-Ytter Y, Nasser M, Meerpohl J, Post P, Kunz R, Brozek J, Vist G, Rind D, Akl E, Schünemann H (2013) GRADE guidelines 14 - going from evidence to recommendations: the significance and presentation of recommendations. J Clin Epidemiol 2013, Jul
  15. Andrews J, Guyatt G, Oxman AD, Alderson P, Dahm P, Falck-Ytter Y, Nasser M, Meerpohl J, Post PN, Kunz R, Brozek J, Vist G, Rind D, Akl EA, Schünemann HJ. GRADE guidelines: 15. Going from evidence to recommendations: the significance and presentation of recommendations. J Clin Epidemiol 2013, Jan
  16. Schünemann HJ, Mustafa R, Brozek J, Santesso N, Alonso-Coello P, Guyatt G, Scholten R, Langendam M, Leeflang MM, Akl EA, Singh JA, Meerpohl J, Hultcrantz M, Bossuyt P, Oxman AD; GRADE Working Group. GRADE Guidelines: 16. GRADE evidence to decision frameworks for tests in clinical practice and public health. J Clin Epidemiol 2016, Feb 27.
  17. Guyatt GH, Ebrahim S, Alonso-Coello P, Johnston BC, Mathioudakis AG, Briel M, Mustafa RA, Sun X, Walter SD, Heels-Ansdell D, Neumann I, Kahale LA, Iorio A, Meerpohl J, Schünemann HJ, Akl EA. GRADE guidelines 17. Assessing the risk of bias associated with missing participant outcome data in a body of evidence. J Clin Epidemiol 2017, May 18.
  18. Schünemann HJ, Cuello C, Akl EA, Mustafa RA, Meerpohl JJ, Thayer K, Morgan RL, Gartlehner G, Kunz R, Katikireddi SV, Sterne J, Higgins JP, Guyatt G; GRADE Working Group. GRADE Guidelines: 18. How ROBINS-I and other tools to assess risk of bias in non-randomized studies should be used to rate the certainty of a body of evidence. J Clin Epidemiol. 2018. pii: S0895-4356(17)31031-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2018.01.012. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 29432858

Deutschsprachige Übersetzung der GRADE Guidelines (ZEFQ)

Diese Serie wird freundlicherweise von Elsevier frei zur Verfügung gestellt.

Schunemann HJ, Langer G, Meerpohl JJ, Ollenschlager G, Perleth M: [Das GRADE-System: Ein Prolog zur Artikelserie in der ZEFQ]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2012; 106 (5): 354-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2012.05.016.

  1. Langer G, Meerpohl JJ, Perleth M, Gartlehner G, Kaminski-Hartenthaler A, Schunemann H: [GRADE Leitlinien: 1. Einführung - GRADE-Evidenzprofile und Summary-of-Findings-Tabellen]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2012; 106 (5): 357-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2012.05.017.
  2. Langer G, Meerpohl JJ, Perleth M, Gartlehner G, Kaminski-Hartenthaler A, Schunemann H: [GRADE Leitlinien: 2. Formulierung der Fragestellung und Entscheidung über wichtige Endpunkte]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2012; 106 (5): 369-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2012.05.018.
  3. Meerpohl JJ, Langer G, Perleth M, Gartlehner G, Kaminski-Hartenthaler A, Schunemann H: [GRADE Leitlinien: 3. Bewertung der Qualität der Evidenz (Vertrauen in die Effektschätzer)]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2012; 106 (6): 449-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2012.06.013.
  4. Meerpohl JJ, Langer G, Perleth M, Gartlehner G, Kaminski-Hartenthaler A, Schunemann H: [GRADE Leitlinien: 4. Bewertung der Qualitat der Evidenz - Studienlimitationen (Risiko für Bias)]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2012; 106 (6): 457-69. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2012.06.014.
  5. Nolting A, Perleth M, Langer G, Meerpohl JJ, Gartlehner G, Kaminski-Hartenthaler A, Schunemann HJ: [GRADE Leitlinien: 5. Einschätzung der Qualität der Evidenz - Publikationsbias]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2012; 106 (9): 670-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2012.10.015.
  6. Kulig M, Perleth M, Langer G, Meerpohl JJ, Gartlehner G, Kaminski-Hartenthaler A, Schunemann HJ: [GRADE Leitlinien: 6.  Einschätzung der Qualitat der Evidenz - Unzureichende Präzision]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2012; 106 (9): 677-88. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2012.10.016.
  7. Perleth M, Langer G, Meerpohl JJ, Gartlehner G, Kaminski-Hartenthaler A, Schunemann HJ: [GRADE Leitlinien: 7. Einschätzung der Qualität der Evidenz - Inkonsistenz]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2012; 106 (10): 733-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2012.10.018.
  8. Rasch A, Perleth M, Langer G, Meerpohl JJ, Gartlehner G, Kaminski-Hartenthaler A, Schunemann HJ: [GRADE Leitlinien: 8. Einschätzung der Qualiäat der Evidenz - Indirektheit]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2012; 106 (10): 745-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2012.10.019.
  9. Kien C, Gartlehner G, Kaminski-Hartenthaler A, Meerpohl JJ, Flamm M, Langer G, Perleth M, Schunemann HJ: [GRADE guidelines: 9. Heraufstufen der Qualität der Evidenz]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2013; 107 (3): 249-55. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2013.04.007.
  10. Perleth M, Matthias K, Langer G, Meerpohl JJ, Gartlehner G, Kaminski-Hartenthaler A, Schunemann HJ: [GRADE Leitlinien: 10. Den Ressourcenverbrauch berücksichtigen und die Qualität ökonomischer Evidenz bewerten]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2013; 107 (3): 256-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2013.04.006.
  11. Kaminski-Hartenthaler A, Gartlehner G, Kien C, Meerpohl JJ, Langer G, Perleth M, Schunemann H: [GRADE Leitlinien: 11. Gesamtbeurteilung des Vertrauens in Effektschätzer für einen einzelnen Studienendpunkt und für alle Endpunkte]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2013; 107 (9-10): 638-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2013.10.033.
  12. Langer G, Meerpohl JJ, Perleth M, Gartlehner G, Schunemann H: [GRADE Leitlinien: 12. Erstellen von "Summary-of-Findings"-Tabellen - Dichotome Endpunkte]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2013; 107 (9-10): 646-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2013.10.034.
  13. Schell LK, Meerpohl JJ, Gartlehner G, Langer G, Perleth M, Schunemann HJ: [GRADE Leitlinien: 13. Erstellen von Summary-of-Findings-Tabellen und Evidenzprofilen - kontinuierliche Endpunkte]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2014; 108 (5-6): 333-47. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2014.05.002.
  14. Kaminski-Hartenthaler A, Meerpohl JJ, Gartlehner G, Kien C, Langer G, Wipplinger J, Schunemann HJ: [GRADE Leitlinien: 14. Von der Evidenz zur Empfehlung: Die Bedeutung und Darstellung von Empfehlungen]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2014; 108 (7): 413-20. 10. DOI: 1016/j.zefq.2014.08.003.
  15. Nussbaumer B, Gartlehner G, Kien C, Kaminski-Hartenthaler A, Langer G, Meerpohl JJ, Schunemann HJ: [GRADE Leitlinien: 15. Von der Evidenz zur Empfehlung - Determinanten, die Richtung und Starke einer Empfehlung bestimmen]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes 2014; 108 (7): 421-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.zefq.2014.08.004.

EtD Evidence to Decision Serie (BMJ u.a.)

  1. Alonso-Coello P, Schünemann HJ, Moberg J, Brignardello-Petersen R, Akl EA, Davoli M, Treweek S, Mustafa RA, Rada G, Rosenbaum S, Morelli A, Guyatt GH, Oxman AD; GRADE Working Group. GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks: a systematic and transparent approach to making well informed healthcare choices. 1: Introduction. BMJ 2016, 353:i2016 doi: dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i2016. PMID: 27353417
  2. Alonso-Coello P, Oxman AD, Moberg J, Brignardello-Petersen R, Akl EA, Davoli M, Treweek S, Mustafa RA, Vandvik PO, Meerpohl J, Guyatt GH, Schünemann HJ; GRADE Working Group. GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks: a systematic and transparent approach to making well informed healthcare choices. 2: Clinical practice guidelines. BMJ 2016, Jun 30;353:i2089. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i2089. PMID: 27365494
  3. Schunemann HJ, Mustafa R, Brozek J, Santesso N, Alonso-Coello P, Guyatt G, Scholten R, Langendam M, Leeflang MM, Akl EA, Singh JA, Meerpohl J, Hultcrantz M, Bossuyt P, Oxman AD; GRADE Working Group. GRADE Guidelines: 16. GRADE evidence to decision frameworks for tests in clinical practice and public health. J Clin Epidemiol 2016, Feb 27. pii: S0895-4356(16)00136-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2016.01.032. PMID: 26931285
  4. Schunemann HJ, Wiercioch W, Brozek J, Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta I, Mustafa RA, Manja V, Brignardello-Petersen R, Neumann I, Falavigna M, Alhazzani W, Santesso N, Zhang Y, Meerpohl JJ, Morgan RL, Rochwerg B, Darzi A, Rojas MX, Carrasco-Labra A, Adi Y, AlRayees Z, Riva J, Bollig C, Moore A, Yepes-Nuñez JJ, Cuello C, Waziry R, Akl EA. GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks for adoption, adaptation, and de novo development of trustworthy recommendations: GRADE-ADOLOPMENT. J Clin Epidemiol 2017, 81:101-110. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2016.09.009. Epub 2016 Oct 3. PMID: 27713072

Equity in GRADE Serie (J Clin Epidemiol)

  1. Welch VA, Akl EA, Guyatt G, Pottie K, Eslava-Schmalbach J, Ansari MT, de Beer H, Briel M, Dans T, Dans I, Hultcrantz M, Jull J, Katikireddi SV, Meerpohl J, Morton R, Mosdol A, Petkovic J, Schünemann H, Sharaf R, Singh J, Stanev R, Tonia T, Tristan M, Vitols S, Watine J, Tugwell P. GRADE Equity guidelines 1: Health equity in guideline development- introduction and rationale. J Clin Epidemiol. 2017 Oct;90:59-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.01.014.Epub 2017 Apr 12. PMID: 28412464
  2. Akl EA, Welch V, Pottie K, Eslava-Schmalbach J, Darzi A, Sola I, Katikireddi SV, Singh J, Murad MH, Meerpohl J, Stanev R, Lang E, Matovinovic E, Shea B, Agoritsas T, Alexander PE, Snellman A, Brignardello-Petersen R, Gloss D, Thabane L, Shi C, Stein AT, Sharaf R, Briel M, Guyatt G, Schünemann H, Tugwell P. GRADE Equity Guidelines 2: Considering health equity in the GRADE guideline development process. J Clin Epidemiol. 2017 May 9. pii: S0895-4356(17)30470-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.01.017. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 28499847
  3. Welch VA, Akl EA, Pottie K, Ansari MT, Briel M, Christensen R, Dans A, Dans L, Eslava-Schmalbach JH, Guyatt G, Hultcrantz M, Jull J, Katikireddi SV, Lang E, Matovinovic E, Meerpohl JJ, Morton R, Mosdøl A, Murad MH, Petkovic J, Schünemann H, Sharaf R, Shea B, Singh JA, Solà I, Stanev R, Stein AT, Thabane L, Tonia T, Tristan M, Vitols S, Watine J, Tugwell P. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3: Health equity considerations in rating the certainty of synthesized evidence. J Clin Epidemiol. 2017 Oct;90:76-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.01.015. Epub 2017 Apr 4. PMID: 2838939
  4. Pottie K, Welch V, Morton R, Akl EA, Eslava-Schmalbach JH, Katikireddi V, Singh J, Moja L, Lang E, Magrini N, Thabane L, Stanev R, Matovinovic E, Snellman A, Briel M, Shea B, Tugwell P, Schunemann H, Guyatt G, Alonso-Coello P. J Clin Epidemiol. 2017 Aug 10. pii: S0895-4356(17)30895-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.08.001. [Epub ahead of print] GRADE equity guidelines 4: guidance on how to assess and address health equity within the evidence to decision process. PMID 28802675

Weitere Publikationen zu GRADE

Booth A, Lewin S, Glenton C, Munthe-Kaas H, Toews I, Noyes J, Rashidian A, Berg RC, Nyakang'o B, Meerpohl JJ, GRADE-CERQual Coordinating Team. Applying GRADE-CERQual to qualitative evidence synthesis findings-paper 7: understanding the potential impacts of dissemination bias.  Implement Sci. 2018. 13(Suppl 1):12. Epub 2018/02/01. doi:10.1186/s13012-017-0694-5. PMID: 29384076

Puhan Milo A, Schünemann Holger J, Murad Mohammad Hassan, Li Tianjing, Brignardello-Petersen Romina, Singh Jasvinder A et al. A GRADE Working Group approach for rating the quality of treatment effect estimates from network meta-analysis BMJ. 2014 Sep 24;349:g5630. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g5630. PMID: 25252733

Ansari TM, Tsertsvadze A, Moher D. Grading Quality of Evidence and Strength of Recommendations: A Perspective.2009. PLoS Med 6(9): e1000151. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000151. PMID: 19753108

Carrasco-Labra A, Brignardello-Petersen R, Santesso N, Neumann I, Mustafa RA, Mbuagbaw L, Etxeandia Ikobaltzeta I, De Stio C, McCullagh LJ, Alonso-Coello P, Meerpohl JJ, Vandvik PO, Brozek JL, Akl EA, Bossuyt P, Churchill R, Glenton C, Rosenbaum S, Tugwell P, Welch V, Garner P, Guyatt G, Schünemann H. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 1: A randomized trial shows improved understanding of content in Summary-of-Findings Tables with a new format. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016 Jan 11. pii: S0895-4356(15)00583-1. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2015.12.007. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 26791430

Norris SL, Meerpohl JJ, Akl EA, Schünemann HJ, Gartlehner G, Chen Y, Whittington C; Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group. The skills and experience of GRADE methodologists can be assessed with a simple tool. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016 Jul 12. pii: S0895-4356(16)30193-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2016.07.001. PMID: 27421684

Zhang Y, Coello PA, Brożek J, Wiercioch W, Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta I, Akl EA, Meerpohl JJ, Alhazzani W, Carrasco-Labra A, Morgan RL, Mustafa RA, Riva JJ, Moore A, Yepes-Nuñez JJ, Cuello-Garcia C, AlRayees Z, Manja V, Falavigna M, Neumann I, Brignardello-Petersen R, Santesso N, Rochwerg B, Darzi A, Rojas MX, Adi Y, Bollig C, Waziry R, Schünemann HJ. Using patient values and preferences to inform the importance of health outcomes in practice guideline development following the GRADE approach. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017 May 2;15(1):52. doi: 10.1186/s12955-017-0621-0.PMID: 28460638